.:SafeGreece:. - The experience of media communication in Greece and the Balkan countries during the disasters
The experience of media communication in Greece and the Balkan countries during the disasters
Author: Kalogiannidis Stavros

1. The development, improvement and establishment of a platform, within frameworks and standards of knowledge management systems for disaster and crisis risk

According to the World Bank, data on risk assessment and assessment are developed by the international scientific community and are considered sophisticated and complex. It is difficult to disclose them by non-technical persons. Therefore, the World Bank has focused on developing a communication tool combining the results of the risk model with infrastructure assets and socio-economic data. Thus, this tool offers a significant number of data in an easily comprehensible form (Sinha, 2006).

Information technology and technologies are the same objective. The overall objective of this project is to identify, design and implement and simultaneously validate the architecture of a general system for generating data exchange used to manage events related to risks (Rhyner, 2006).
The main objective of the NaDiNe Platform was to integrate existing scientific expertise and activities in a cooperative way in providing a framework for communication, collaboration and information (Haubrock et al., 2006). Thus, in 2006, MONITOR had as its primary objective to monitor methods and communication on risk by providing online information to be incorporated into the knowledge base. This portal provided a communication structure through which to exchange experiences, results and methods to improve the practices to be followed in order to conquer the risk management methods (Kollarits, Maurer & Siegel, 2008).
Zemp (2010) attempted to link ICT-related communication systems to the general public with the use of media and communication, since it is very important to know what the public has and what is the belief interprets some issues. The use of ICT has prompted issues of access, exclusion and participation in disaster-related issues, as well as other dynamic crisis events that cross the public's information environment in a rapidly changing medium of media. These factors must therefore be fully understood and continuously monitored so that they can be strategically planned and designed, but also that the management of disasters at the communication level is adjusted accordingly.
A consultation workshop on the issue of scientific and technical platforms was conducted during the United Nations International Strategy and their Strategy to reduce disaster risks at the 4th World Disaster Reduction Meeting on 19-23 May 2013 in Geneva, Switzerland. Scientific and technological platforms have been identified by the experts' workshop, showing that science is useful and used in disaster risk management and management. However, there was consensus on the availability of research and how it could be fully used. The survey participants said they were worried about it. In order to make research more useful and effective for policy-making and other applications, platform activities should be better geared to the needs of users, so that users are more responsive and more demanding. In particular, it is necessary to place greater emphasis on products that translate scientific information and drive information to decision-makers and their reduction. Platforms and networks of technology generally offer higher value to the information process, and their work is encouraged. Mechanisms and standards should be developed as to how the future collaboration and coordination of platforms can facilitate and gain more synergies (Davos, 2012).
In general, science needs to develop more, if it strengthens multidisciplinary and multidisciplinary, such as social science, and tackles the issue at local, national and international level. There is, therefore, a significant gap in knowledge and data management at national and regional level , so this gap needs to be improved (Ammann & Murray, 2013).

2. The contribution of communication to the prevention and restoration of events and consequences of disasters and crises

The development of capabilities and good information prior to disasters is an important challenge, but also an important and decisive contribution. According to Sapristein (2006), human impact planning is a strategic planning process for communities of all sizes , where they should be used to prepare for the inevitable consequences of disasters. Human design and in-depth understanding of the human response, such as disaster stress, are an integrated planning process, of course taking into account the individual, organizational and community factors that exert a significant influence on human functioning during or even after a disaster event.
An established information management information system could have been in the slogan 'reacting to the reaction'. The preventive and strategic nature of the risk concerns the thorough investigation of risks and support for the decision-making process is vital. The guidelines are taken into account in the ORTIS development , which is an important tool for organizational risk management and is an important information system. ORTIS contributes to the structure, homogeneous and systematic approach of a disaster event, grouping and often spreading information on the issue of risk, making the issue more user-friendly to the system and having a realistic and oriented approach. In addition, ORTIS collects a variety of individual risks, often considered independently, as they receive a variety of interactions. Indeed, the implementation of appropriate measures is reinforced, recalling the importance of the long-term monitoring process (Moran et al., 2008).
Donovang-Kuhlisch and Small (2010) submitted a report on information and communication technology to develop capabilities in the context of prevention, intervention and disaster recovery . These pillars were identified as references to research, highlighting various areas of private and public life, in mature and emerging economies and societies. In their view, ICTs play an important role in managing risks, crises and disasters. Protection and recovery during the life cycle of a crisis can be achieved and addressed through a balanced system called the digital economy platform, including technology.
In fact, geo-environmental technologies in terms of risk reduction and disaster management do not provide information on the disaster response phase but provide information on disaster prevention and preparedness by enhancing accuracy during the recovery phase from the disaster. In addition, images depicting response and spatial description contribute to priority setting and resource allocation (ESRI, 2012).
According to Sullivan (2012), the rise in communication facilitates communication technologies in terms of readiness, practice and practice that are applied before, during and after the event . Mobile telephony technologies prove to be important in terms of preparedness, alert and response to disaster. Of course, the growing presence of technology is a major challenge for many stakeholders to use it effectively in support of an integrated and adaptive approach to risk management (Sullivan & Häkkinen, 2012).

3. Social media as useful information and communication tools in times of crisis

Social media is a term that applies to blogs, blogs, forums, photo sharing, wikis, social networking, networking and other digital tools and applications to facilitate interactive communication and exchange of content between people, audience, audience and organizations. On the one hand, the use of social media serves immediate information and communication. On the other hand, social media serve to monitor issues and the environment, in order to obtain a coherent picture of a situation.
Consequently, social media contribute to informing the public, informing and communicating during a crisis situation (Schanne, 2012). At the same time, there is the possibility of liberating from using social media systematically for risk, from communicating the crisis or integrating social media into consciousness. Through social media, it is possible to improve communication from authorities to authorities, from authorities to citizens and between them. The contribution of media and linguistics research to scientific and socio-social aspects (demographics, cultural, linguistic, religious) are considered to be important factors that help strengthen the resilience of multilingual and civil society modern society (Eggenberger, Schanne , & Esmael, 2012).
Social media is an important facilitator not only for the purposes of didactic communication but also for gathering information resources at almost real time for mapping risks and mobilizing during and after a crisis. It is, therefore, observed that during, for example, the floods in Australia, many people who had access to the internet sent information to provide support and mobilize their fellow human beings. However, this method, known as crowdsourcing, must be developed in a sound methodology to map the risks, since the volume and variety of information is enormous and there may be ridicule or even a huge departure from reality - misinformation .
There is, therefore, the issue of reliability in the transmission of information on a disaster and crisis phenomenon - but also on more general issues -. There is a question of reliability in the use of social media and communication media, with the majority of information being usually inaccurate and sometimes false in content before it is even evaluated (Zemp, 2010).
Mobile devices can play an important and effective role while improving personal readiness and security. However, they still accept technical challenges and research deficiencies, with new trends and developments being promising.
Research should assess the dynamics of social media and, in particular, their potential as an additional technical tool that helps to improve communication between the authorities and the entire population of the population and among themselves. In addition, the impact of professional communication on the border of language and behavior from the use of social media is great, characterized by the resilience that occurs due to the multiculturalism of modern societies, so the use of social media must be assessed and identified .
This may contribute in the context of opportunities, challenges, limits to an optimal use of social media advocating stronger resilience (Alexander, 2012).

4. The benefits of technological use in collecting information data for a disaster / crisis

A key asset for data collection is the commitment of the local community to valuable inputs from ICT systems and communication on dangers and crises. Collecting data from local communities is not only beneficial to collectors of information. It also provides ownership of results to data providers that contribute to communicating risks and crises by sensing and applying them.
Various geographic and different projects and research efforts highlight the local community's struggle. In Japan, for example, an e-community platform for communicating disaster risks has already been established. Through this platform, residents use the system from their simple browser or their mobile phones, not to improve their education, the risks and knowledge of disasters, and their previous knowledge of disasters , but also enable them to share information about timely warnings or evacuation alarms from their outbreak so that they can cooperate with each other (Nagasaka, 2006).
According to Ikeda and his colleagues (2010), local communities and their mapping, as well as scenario making methods, contribute to improving risk management for reorganizing local co-operation between residents and residents with organizations. In addition, as an example, Japan, a multidisciplinary approach to communication on disaster risk has been developed based on social experiments conducted in various Japanese cities and regions in more than 15 different locations since 2008. Various cases of studies conducted in several Japanese cities, such as Fujisawa and elsewhere, have shown that disaster risks are expressed in narrative form of risk scenarios, with the help of experts, local knowledge and experiments Affairs, and so in this way contribute to a better understanding of the descriptive content of the residents and their awareness, while improving and risk governance in these communities (Ikeda, Nagasaka & Sato, 2010).
According to Bongo (2010), there are still gaps in completing and linking the disaster with relevant reported community-level information . He argues that, for an effective Community level of dissemination of information on disasters, there is a great need to simplify the flow of the uncovered language of information. This is the reference to the institutional isolation of humanitarian organizations, which is a major barrier to community communication strategies. When communities have the opportunity to shape and develop their personal communications strategies, in disaster situations, based on their personal experience and perceptions, then these strategies are linked to official strategies, thus creating a relevant and timely communication of disasters about resilience of the community. The key to this process is that capacities are created by Community Disaster Management Committees and Institutions, improving the viability of the means of subsistence (Bongo, 2010).
In the case of early warning systems, the involvement of the local community, which is the basis of the information process, is highlighted and highlighted. These lessons are that information from the local community can be bridged, with community vulnerabilities being taken as a starting point for the local development of the system and for building strong links with national systems (Capistrano & Singh, 2012).
The needs of each local community have been highlighted, for example the need for wider use of mobile satellite telecommunications technology. A broad coverage of these technologies can enable local communities to be fully or better equipped, so if they respond better to disasters (Bharti, 2008). Amateur radio is a useful tool for communication in crises and disasters, especially for distant regions. There is also a need to increase the use of home radio, which is facilitated by positive modifications by amateurs (Padmanabhan & Bhatnagar, 2008).

5. The availability of ICT technology and the communication of crises and disasters for vulnerable population groups

ICTs raise issues of accessibility, exclusion and participation (Zemp, 2010). The question of marginalization, of course, mainly concerns vulnerable social groups of the population. Thus, people with physical disorders, such as deafness and blindness, receive communication and information in a variety of ways. Of course, ICT in crisis and disaster issues at the information level should also be addressed to these groups of society.
Because there is no cultural and personal awareness of existing alert systems, these alert messages are not properly suited to the recipients and thus can not achieve optimal impact and compliance. Thus, the choice of the alert tool must be related to the age of the recipient, the area of his residence and his national confidence (Meissen et al., 2012).
An example is coverage of the alert system, with remote regions having to benefit from technology. The increasing use of mobile telephony services is an important asset that should be used to alert citizens to a community (Capistrano & Singh, 2012).
The challenge to address demographic change and the corresponding patterns of use of methods and media about the way teams are dealt with must be addressed. New technologies offer many opportunities, keeping it simple, and using a warning message, which informs in an effective way (Zemp, 2010).

6. Epilogue

It seems, therefore, that communication is influenced by a variety of factors. Information and information technology and availability make it possible to manage risks and crises. In addition, supply with relevant and timely data and information may be converted into knowledge if such knowledge and lessons have been learned from past events and can not be stored and communicated in a correct manner. The result of this is the loss of information.
Consequently, communication management is a key factor in risk and crisis management and risk and crisis communication. New communication technologies give the possibility of a practical reduction in the risk of disasters and the crisis. Their strength and flexibility make them suitable for the administration and operation of control, dealing with situations and emergencies, enabling the exchange and generation of information on the state of disaster and crisis, so that the vulnerabilities systematically.
Furthermore, through ICT, there is the possibility of planning and completing and increasing missions, roles and workflows. In the modern world with the huge distribution of information material, vital information can be identified and filtered without influence (Alexander, 2012).



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